C#

How to Create Instance Variables and Class Variables in Python

In this article I will explain How to Create Instance Variables and Class Variables in Python. Apart from class variables, and instance variables, we can also define variables within a method. In such a case, these variables are local variables and can be used within that method only.

Further, we access the instance variables using the object name. Whereas, the class variables are accesses using the class name. Moreover, the value of class variables remain same for each object. While, the instance variables take different values for different objects.

The following example shows the usage of instance variables and class variables. As can be seen, the variables a and b are class variables. Therefore, the values of these two variables remain same for all objects of the class. In contrast, the variables x and y are instance variables. Hence, these variables take different values for each object of the class. Also, we pass the values of instance variables as parameters to the constructor while creating the objects. Further, we can access the instance variables using the self keyword. While, we access the class variables usinf=g the name of the class. The following example also shows that how to access and use both instance variables and class variables in an expression. The show() method defined in the class computes and displays the sum of these four variables.

class MyClass:
	a=100
	b=200
	def __init__(self, x, y):
		self.x=x
		self.y=y
	def show(self):
		print("a = ", MyClass.a)
		print("b = ", MyClass.b)
		print("x = ", self.x)
		print("y = ", self.y)
		print("sum = ", MyClass.a+MyClass.b+self.x+self.y)


ob1=MyClass(670, 433)
ob1.show()

ob2=MyClass(56, 24)
ob2.show()

ob3=MyClass(6, 3)
ob3.show()

Output

An Example to Show Instance Variables and Class Variables in Python
An Example to Show Instance Variables and Class Variables in Python

Using Class Variables and Instance Variables in EmployeePay Class

Another example is shown here. Basically, the EmployeePay class contains three class variables. These variables are hra, da, and deductions. So, each object of this class uses the same values for these variables. However, the class has two instance variables. These re ename, and basic representing employee name, and basic salary. Also, the class has a method showNetPay(). The method computes the net pay of an employee. Further, it contains an expression involving the use of both types of variables. The following section shows the complete code. Also, note the use of self keyword.

class EmployeePay:
	hra=0.23
	da=0.5
	deductions=5000
	def __init__(self, ename, basic):
		self.ename=ename
		self.basic=basic
	def showNetPay(self):
		net=EmployeePay.hra*self.basic+EmployeePay.da*self.basic-EmployeePay.deductions+self.basic
		print("Employee Name: ", self.ename)
		print("Basic Salary: ", self.basic)
		print("Net Salary: ", net)

print("First Object...")
ob1=EmployeePay("Pratham", 10000)
ob1.showNetPay()

print("Second Object...")
ob2=EmployeePay("Aditya", 14000)
ob2.showNetPay()

print("Third Object...")
ob3=EmployeePay("Ankur", 21000)
ob3.showNetPay()

Output

Using Instance Variables and Class Variables together in Python
Using Instance Variables and Class Variables together in Python

Further Reading

Selection Sort in C#

Insertion Sort in C#

Bubble Sort in C#

How to Create Instance Variables and Class Variables in Python

Comparing Rows of Two Tables with ADO.NET

Example of Label and Textbox Control in ASP.NET

One Dimensional and Two Dimensuonal Indexers in C#

Private and Static Constructors in C#

Methods of Array Class

Anonymous Functions in C#

Programs to Find Armstrong Numbers in C#

Matrix Multiplication in C#

One Dimensional and Two Dimensional Indexers in C#

Static Class Example in C#

Rotating an Array in C#

Generic IList Interface and its Implementation in C#

Recursive Binary search in C#

C# Practice Questions

Creating Navigation Window Application Using WPF in C#

Find Intersection Using Arrays

An array of Objects and Object Initializer

Performing Set Operations in LINQ

Using Quantifiers in LINQ

Data Binding Using BulletedList Control

Grouping Queries in LINQ

Generic Binary Search in C#

Understanding the Quantifiers in LINQ

Join Operation using LINQ

Deferred Query Execution and Immediate Query Execution in LINQ

Examples of Query Operations using LINQ in C#

An array of Objects and Object Initializer

Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) in C#

How Data Binding Works in WPF

Examples of Connected and Disconnected Approach in ADO.NET

New Features in C# 9

IEnumerable and IEnumerator Interfaces

KeyValuePair and its Applications

C# Root Class – Object

Access Modifiers in C#

Learning Properties in C#

Learning All Class Members in C#

Examples of Extension Methods in C#

How to Setup a Connection with SQL Server Database in Visual Studio

Understanding the Concept of Nested Classes in C#

LINQ To SQL Examples

A Beginner’s Tutorial on WPF in C#

Explaining C# Records with Examples

Everything about Tuples in C# and When to Use?

Creating Jagged Arrays in C#

Linear Search and Binary search in C#

Learning Indexers in C#

Object Initializers in C#

Examples of Static Constructors in C#

When should We Use Private Constructors?

C# Basic Examples

IEqualityComparer Interface

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